Main and auxiliary packaging materials: The packaging and packaging materials industry is distinguished by its complexity and overlap, and this is naturally due to the multiplicity of its products in different shapes, sizes, colors and specifications according to the desired purpose, and the following are some of them:
- First paper and cardboard: - Paper is one of the most important packaging materials and includes a wide range of varieties, each of which differs from the other in its properties, features and usage: A- (non-bleached kraft): It is one of the strongest packaging papers, relatively the cheapest, the largest in use, and the most important use: 1 - Manufacture of bags for consumer and industrial purposes (packing cement, fertilizer, gypsum and lime) 2. Manufacture of glued paper boxes. 3- Manufacture of corrugated cardboard boxes. B- (Kraft) bleaching: the most important use of it when lining it (with polyethylene and aluminum foil) together to make inexpensive packaging for liquid products such as milk, fruit juice, etc. It is characterized by its ability to print luxury. The surface is like glass and it can be opaque, translucent or colored, and these papers are either used as they are after waxing, printing or granulation, or lining them with papers similar or different from them, and usually these papers are made that do not prevent water vapor penetration, but by saturation or coverage they acquire this The property is in addition to the fact that it does not allow by its nature to permeate gases, and it can also be made neutral. Therefore, it is through an appropriate combination of these properties on paper with excellent qualities, the most important of which is preventing (rancidity) from greasy materials. D- Parchment paper: Parchment paper is made by passing unsized paper in a concentrated solution of sulfuric acid, washed and neutralized, and then goes through the drying stage. The result is to obtain high-density, semi-transparent hard paper free of fluff. Its strength is not affected by wetness until Boiling point, highly resistant to fats and oils, and its color by its nature does not prevent the leakage of water vapor, but it easily acquires this property when waxed. The stiffness of this paper can be overcome by treating it with pure glycerine and the surface. The solid, fluffless, of this paper makes it suitable for processing (silicones) to produce the paper (release paper) and has many industrial uses and is used for lining dishes of pies to ensure that these pies do not stick to them after baking and is used successfully for coating fish, meat, vegetable and animal grease.
Glass is used in large quantities due to its properties such as the following: It does not interact chemically with the internal contents, especially the neutral glass used in packaging medicines. High transparency, so that goods with attractive appearance and colors can be displayed successfully. Not being easily scratched. The material packed in glass has a long shelf life. Glass containers are reusable after washing. Tinted glass in dark colors gives the goods packed inside with adequate protection from light. Fourthly, metal containers: Tin containers have come a long way in packing food since Nicholas Abert succeeded in making preserved foods in 1809, and containers have many functions. Protection differs from one commodity to another. Rather, it differs with respect to one commodity according to the conditions of its storage, transport and sale. Protection is divided into: - A- Mechanical protection: meaning that the commodity arrives intact to the consumer. B - Natural protection: meaning that if there are odors or gases affecting the contents of the package, these effects must be prevented. C - Chemical protection: in the sense of preventing interaction between the package and the packed material. Fifthly: plastics: - The types of plastics used in the field of packaging cannot be enumerated for several considerations, the most important of which is the economic considerations with which the product tends to face the pressure of competition to use the best advanced alternatives to traditional packaging materials represented in paper, cardboard, glass and metal. Likewise, the ability of plastics industries to synthesize and develop new multiple (polymers) to meet the needs of advanced packaging, and the plastic family consists of a group of industrial groups, including (10 to 20) types that are used successfully today in the packaging industry comes in the forefront (polyethylene) in terms of volume of use Or its ease or the multiplicity of images and items that can be obtained or because of its cheap price and other types used in packaging (polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, ethylene vinyl acetate, polyfemelidine chloride, cellulosics, nylon and acrylic compounds). It could have been melted by heat, solidified by cold, and then re-melted by heat. Like all the types mentioned above, it is called “thermoplastic,” but if it is melted by heat only once, it is thermostable, such as urea formaldehyde, phenol formaldehyde and maldine formaldehyde. data A lot of data has been collected from factories, companies, establishments and production units, which are related to the production of packaging materials at home and abroad. Conclusion Through this study it became clear that there are no policies or procedures